×

Tag: Service Standard

So, what is a Service Owner?

Before I discuss what (in my view) a Service Owner is, a brief history lesson into the role might be useful.

The role of the ‘Service Manager‘ was seen as critically important to the success of a product, and they were defined as a G6 (Manager) who had responsibility for the end to end service AND the person who led the team through their Service Standard assessments.

Now let’s think about this a bit; Back when the GDS Service Standard and the Service Manual first came into creation, they were specifically created for/with GOV.UK in mind. As such, this definition of the role makes some sense. GOV.UK was (relatively) small and simple; and one person could ‘own’ the end to end service.

The problem came about when the Service Standards were rolled our wider than in GDS itself. DWP is a good example of where this role didn’t work.

The Service Manual describes a service as the holistic experience for a user; so it’s not just a Digital Product, it’s the telephony Service that sits alongside it, the back end systems that support it, the Operational processes that staff use to deliver the service daily, along with the budget that pays for it all. Universal Credit is a service, State Pension is a service; and both of these services are, to put it bluntly, HUGE.

Neil Couling is a lovely bloke, who works really hard, and has the unenviable task of having overarching responsibility for Universal Credit. He’s also, a Director General. While he knows A LOT about the service, it is very unlikely that he would know the full history of every design iteration and user research session the Service went through, or be able to talk in detail about the tech stack and it’s resilience etc; and even if he did, he certainly would be very unlikely to have the 4 hours spare to sit in the various GDS assessments UC went through.

This led to us (in DWP) phasing out the role; and splitting the responsibilities into two, the (newly created role of ) Product Lead and the Service Owner. The Product Lead did most of the work of the Service Manager (in terms of GDS assessments etc), but they didn’t have the responsibility of the end to end service; this sat with the Service Owner. The Service Owner was generally a Director General (and also the SRO), who we clarified the responsibilities of when it came to Digital Services.

A few years ago, Ross (the then Head of Product and Service Management at GDS) and I, along with a few others, had a lot of conversations about the role of the Service Manager; and why in departments like DWP, the role did not work, and what we were doing instead.

At the time there was the agreement in many of the Departments outside of GDS that the Service Manager role wasn’t working how it had been intended, and was instead causing confusion and in some cases, creating additional unnecessary hierarchy. The main problem was, is it was in DWP, the breadth of the role was too big for anyone below SCS, which mean instead we were ending up with Service Managers who were only responsible for the digital elements of the service (and often reported to a Digital Director), with all non digital elements of the service sitting under a Director outside of Digital, which was creating more division and confusion.

As such, the Service Manual and the newly created DDaT framework were changed to incorporate the role of the Service Owner instead of the Service Manager; with the suggestion this role should be an SCS level role. However, because the SCS was outside of the DDaT framework, the amount the role could be defined/ specified was rather limited, and instead became more of a suggestion rather than a clearly defined requirement.

The latest version of the DDaT framework has interestingly removed the suggestions that the role should be an SCS role, and any reference of the cross over with the responsibilities of SRO, and now makes the role sound much more ‘middle management’ again, although it does still specify ownership of the end to end service.

Ok, so what should a Service Owner be?

When we talked about the role a few years ago, the intention was very much to define how the traditional role of the SRO joined up closer to the agile/digital/user centred design world; in order to create holistic joined up services.

Below is (at least my understanding of) what we intended the role to be:

  • They should have end to end responsibility for the holistic service.
  • They should understand and have overall responsibility for the scope of all products within the service.
  • They should have responsibility for agreeing the overall metrics for their service and ensuring they are met.
  • They should have responsibility for the overall budget for their service (and the products within it).
  • They should understand the high level needs of their users, and what teams are doing to meet their needs.
  • They should have an understanding (and have agreed) the high level priorities within the service. ((Which Product needs to be delivered first? Which has the most urgent resource needs etc.))
  • They should be working with the Product/Delivery/Design leads within their Products as much as the Operational leads etc. to empower them to make decisions, and understanding the decisions that have been made.
  • They should be encouraging and supporting cross functional working to ensure all elements of a service work together holistically.
  • They should be fully aware of any political/strategy decisions or issues that may impact their users and the service, and be working with their teams to ensure those are understand to minimise risks.
  • They should understand how Agile/Waterfall and any other change methodologies work to deliver change. And how to best support their teams no matter which methodology is being used.

In this way the role of the Service Owner would add clear value to the Product teams, without adding in unnecessary hierarchy. They would support and enable the development of a holistic service, bringing together all the functions a service would need to be able to deliver and meet user needs.

Whether they are an SCS person or not is irrelevant, the important thing is that they have the knowledge and ability to make decisions that affect the whole service, that they have overall responsibility for ensuring users needs are met, that they can ensure that all the products within the service work together, and that their teams are empowered, to deliver the right outcomes.

Service Standards for the whole service

How the service standards have evolved over time….

Gov.uk has recently published the new Service Standards for government and public sector agencies to use when developing public facing transactional services.

I’ve previously blogged about why the Service Standards are important in helping us develop services that meet user needs, as such I’ve been following their iteration with interest.

The service standards are a labour of love that have been changed and iterated a couple of time over the last 6 years. The initial digital by default service standard, developed in 2013 by the Government Digital Service, came fully into force in April 2014 for use by all transactional Digital Products being developed within Government; it was a list of 26 standards all Product teams had to meet to be able to deliver digital products to the public. The focus was on creating digital services so good that people preferred to use them, driving up digital completion rates and decreasing costs by moving to digital services. It included making plans for the phasing out of alternative channels and encouraged that any non-digital sections of the service should only be kept where legally required.

A number of fantastic products and services were developed during this time, leading the digital revolution in government, and vastly improving users experience of interacting government. However, these Products and Services were predominantly dubbed ‘shiny front ends’. They had to integrate with clunky back end services, and often featured drop out points from the digital service (like the need for wet signatures) that it was difficult to change. This meant the ‘cost per transaction’ was actually very difficult to calculate; and yet standard 23 insisted all services must publish their cost per transaction as one of the 4 minimum key performance indicators required for the performance platform.

The second iteration of the digital service standard was developed in 2015, it reduced the number of standards services had to meet to 18, and was intended to be more Service focused rather than Product focused, with standard number 10 giving some clarity on how to ‘test the service end to end’. It grouped the standards together into themes to help the flow of the service standard assessments, it also clarified and emphasised a number of the points to help teams develop services that met user needs. While standard 16 still specified you needed a plan for reducing you cost per transaction, it also advised you to calculate how cost effective your non transactional user journeys were and to include the ‘total cost’ which included things like printing, staff costs and fixtures and fittings.

However, as Service design as a methodology began to evolve, the standards were criticised for still being too focused on the digital element of the service. Standard 14 still stated that ‘everyone much be encourage to use the digital service’. There were also a lot of questions about how the non digital elements of a service could be assessed, and the feeling that the standards didn’t cover how large or complicated some services could be.

Paper and Digital

The newest version of the Service standard has been in development since 2017, a lot of thought and work has gone into the new standard, and a number of good blogs have been written about the process the team have gone through to update them. As a member of some of the early conversations and workshops about the new standards I’ve been eagerly awaiting their arrival.

While the standards still specifically focus on public facing transactional services, they have specially be designed for full end to end services, covering all channels users might use to engage with a service. There are now 14 standards, but the focus is now much wider than ‘Digital’ as is highlighted by the fact the word Digital has been removed from the title!

Standard number 2 highlights this new holistic focus, acknowledging the problems users face with fragmented services. Which is now complimented by Standard number 3 that specifics that you must provide a joined up experience that meets all user needs across all channels. While the requirement to measure your cost per transaction and digital take up is still there for central government departments, it’s no longer the focus, instead the focus of standard 10 is now on identifying metrics that will indicate how well the services is solving the problem it’s meant to solve.

For all the changes, one thing has remained the same thorough out, the first standard upon which the principles of transformation in the public sector are built; understand the needs of your users.

Apparently the new standards are being rolled out for Products and Services entering Discovery after the 30th of June 2019, and I for one I’m looking forward to using them.

Launch!

Speak Agile To Me:

I have blogged about some of these elsewhere, but a quick glossary of terms that you might hear when talking Agile or Digital Transformation.

Agile: A change methodology, focusing on delivering value as early as possible, iterating and testing regularly.

Waterfall: A Change methodology, focusing on a linear lifecycle delivering a project based on requirements gathered upfront.

Scrum: A type of Agile, based on daily communication and the flexible iteration of plans that are carried out in short timeboxes of work.

Kanban: A type of Agile, based on limiting throughput and the amount of work in progress.

The Agile Lifecycle: Similar to other change methodology lifecycles, the agile lifecycle is the stages a project has to go through. Unlike other lifecycles, agile is not a linear process, and products or services may go around the agile lifecycle several times before they are decommissioned.

Discovery: The first stage of the agile lifecycle, all about understanding who your users are; what they need and the problem you are trying to fix. Developing assumptions and hypothesis. Identifying a MVP that you think will fix the problem you have identified. Prioritising your user needs and
turning them into epic user stories.Akin to the requirements gathering stage in Waterfall.

Alpha: The design and development stage. Building prototypes of your service and testing it with your users. Breaking user needs and Epics into user stories and prioritising them. Identifying risks and issues understanding the architecture and infrastructure you will need prior to build. Akin to the design and implementation stage in Waterfall.

Beta: The build and test stage. Building a working version of your service. Ensuring your service is accessible, secure and scalable. Improving the service based on user feedback, measuring the impact of your service or product on the problem you were trying to fix. Can feature Private and Public Beta. Akin to the Testing and development stage in Waterfall.

Private Beta: Testing with a restricted number of users. A limited test. Users can be invited to user the service or limited by geographical region etc.

Public Beta: A product still in test phase but open to a wider audience, users are no longer invited in, but should be aware they product is still in test phase.

Live: Once you know your service meets all the user needs identified within your MVP, you are sure it is accessible, secure and scalable, and you have a clear plan to keep iterating and supporting it then you can go live. Akin to the Maintenance stage in Waterfall.

MVP: The Minimum Viable Product, the smallest releasable product with just enough features to meet user needs, and to provide feedback for future product development.

User Needs: The things your users need, evidenced by user research and testing. Akin to business requirements in Waterfall and other methodologies.

GDS: Government Digital Services, part of the Cabinet Office, leading digital transformation for Government, setting the Digital Service Standard that all Government Departments must meet when developing digital products and services.

The Digital Service Standards: https://www.gov.uk/service-manual/service-standard 18 standards all government digital services should meet when developing products and services.

Service Design: Looking at your Product or Service holistically, keeping it user focused while ensuring it aligns with your organisation strategy.

User Centric Design (UCD): The principles of user centric design are very simple, that you keep the users (both internal and external) at the heart of everything you do. This means involving users in the design process, rather than using ‘proxy’ users (people acting like users), you involve actual users throughout the design and development process. Recognising different users (and user groups) have different needs and that the best way to design services that meet those needs is to keep engaging with the users.